The combined activity of several Ginkgo phytoconstituents is generally considered to be responsible for its effects.
Ginkgo extract is believed to inhibit human platelet aggregation elicited by substances such as thrombin and collagen. (55)
Ginkgo leaf extract scavenges several oxygen species, including hydroxyl, superoxide, and peroxyl radicals. (59)
Ginkgo leaf extract and the flavonoid constituents bind to both oestrogen receptors (ER), alpha- and beta- receptors. At certain concentrations, Ginkgo extract and flavonoid constituents induced the proliferation of ER-positive MCF-7 human breast cancer cells. (60)
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